So I was unable to find proper answers, and most of them were about how you go about Beginner’s Luck tests. The Hubs and Spokes also doesn’t talk about how you go about other skill vs stat opposed rolls (like stealthy vs speed as casually explained in the R&C example p417) or even a rolled skill vs static stat (like Falsehood vs Will obstacle as laid out in the skill description p272).
One could infer from the Beginner’s Luck test rules how double obstacle penalties and determining the difficulty of the tests for skill/stat advancement applies for skill vs stat opposed rolls (except for how a skill roll result that is then modified afterwards is calculated for advancement). However, it’s not clear as to how this applies to rolled skill vs static stat or even rolled stat vs static skill (if that even exists). Maybe someone can clear this up for me as this is not clearly explained altogether in one section of the core book.